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Autism prevalence

Respiratory depression at birth
Baskett TF et al. Predictors of respiratory depression at birth in the term infant. BJOG. 2006 Jul;

Milsom I et al. Influence of maternal, obstetric and fetal risk factors on the prevalence of birth
asphyxia at term in a Swedish urban population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002 Oct;81(10):

Perinatal complications and autism

Auditory system damage caused by experimental asphyxiation of monkeys at birth
Windle WF (1969) Brain damage by asphyxia at birth.  Scientific American 221(#4):76-84.

Ranck JB Jr, Windle WF.Brain damage in the monkey, macaca mulatta, by asphyxia
neonatorum. Exp Neurol. 1959 Jun;1(2):130-54.

Auditory system and other brainstem damage in human infants
Natsume J, Watanabe K, Kuno K, Hayakawa F, Hashizume Y. Clinical, neurophysiologic, and
neuropathological features of an infant with brain damage of total asphyxia type (Myers). Pediatr
Neurol. 1995 Jul;13(1):61-4.

Roland EH, Hill A, Norman MG, Flodmark O, MacNab AJ. Selective brainstem injury in an
asphyxiated newborn. Ann Neurol. 1988 Jan;23(1):89-92.

Leech RW, Alvord EC Jr. Anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the human neonatal period. The
significance of brain stem involvement. Arch Neurol. 1977 Feb;34(2):109-13.

Schneider H, Ballowitz L, Schachinger H, Hanefield F, Droeszus J-U Anoxic encephalopathy
with predominant involvement of basal ganglia, brain stem and spinal cord in the perinatal
period. Report on seven newborns. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1975 Oct 1;32(4):287-98.

Griffiths AD, Laurence KM. The effect of hypoxia and hypoglycaemia on the brain of the newborn
human infant. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1974 Jun;16(3):308-319.

Grunnet ML, Curless RG, Bray PF, Jung AL. Brain changes in newborns from an intensive care
unit. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1974 Jun;16(3):320-8.

Norman MG. Antenatal neuronal loss and gliosis of the reticular formation, thalamus, and
hypothalamus. A report of three cases. Neurology. 1972 Sep;22(9):910-6.

Abnormal brain maturation in monkeys subjected to asphyxia at birth
Faro MD, Windle WF. Transneuronal degeneration in brains of monkeys asphyxiated at birth.
Exp Neurol. 1969 May;24(1):38-53.

Loss of speech comprehension following midbrain auditory system injury
Pan CL et al. (2004) Auditory agnosia caused by a tectal germinoma. Neurology.  2004 Dec 28;
63(12): 2387-9.  Comment: Neurology 2005 Jul 26;65(2):339; author reply 339.

Kimiskidis VK et al. (2004) Sensorineural hearing loss and word deafness caused by a
mesencephalic lesion: clinicoelectrophysiologic correlations. Otol Neurotol. 2004 Mar;25(2):

Musiek FE et al (2004) Central deafness associated with a midbrain lesion. J Am Acad Audiol
2004 feb; 15 (2):133-151.

Hoistad DL, Hain TC (2003) Central hearing loss with a bilateral inferior colliculus lesion.
Audiol Neurootol 2003 Mar-Apr; 8(2):111-223.

Vitte E et al. (2002) Midbrain deafness with normal brainstem auditory evoked potentials.
Neurology 2002; 58:970–973.

Masuda S et al. (2000) Word deafness after resection of a pineal body tumor in the presence of
normal wave latencies of the auditory brain stem response. The Annals of otology, rhinology,
and laryngology. 2000 Dec;109(12 Pt 1):1107-12.

Johkura K et al. (1998) Defective auditory recognition after small hemorrhage in the inferior
colliculi. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 161:91-6.

Meyer B et al. (1996) Pure word deafness after resection of a tectal plate glioma with
preservation of wave V of brain stem auditory evoked potentials. Journal of Neurology,
Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 61: 423-4. (no online abstract)

Howe JR, Miller CA (1975) Midbrain deafness following head injury. Neurology. 1975 Mar;25(3):

Transition from placental to pulmonary respiration
Mercer JS, Skovgaard RL. Neonatal transitional physiology: a new paradigm. J Perinat
Neonatal Nurs. 2002 Mar;15(4):56-75.

Traditional understanding and practice in childbirth
Harvey, William. Anatomical exercitations concerning the generation of living creatures to which
are added particular discourses of births and of conceptions, &c.London : Printed by James
Young, for Octavian Pulleyn, and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the Rose in St. Pauls
Church-yard, 1653. From Early English Books Online

White C (1773) A Treatise on the Management of Pregnant and Lying-In Women. Canton, MA:
Science History Publications, 1987,  p 45
Available from:

Erasmus Darwin (1801) Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Section XXXVIII

Meigs C. (19842) Jefferson Medical College.  A Philadelphia Practice of Midwifery, 1842.

Churchill F (1850) On the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. London: Henry Renshaw.

Swayne JG (1856) Obstetric Aphorisms: For the use of students commencing midwifery
practice. London: John Churchill.

Lusk WT (1882) The Science and Art of Midwifery.  New York: D Appleton and Company.

Leishman W (1888) A System of Midwifery Glasgow James MacLehose & Sons.

Corney, BG (1899) Instructions with reference to the treatment of the umbilical cord.

King AFA (1907) A Manual of Obstetrics, Tenth Edition.  Lea Brothers & Co., Philadelphia.

Jellett, H (1910) A Manual of Midwifery for Students and Practitioners.  New York: William Wood.

Williams JW (1917) Obstetrics: A Text-Book for the Use of Students and Practitioners, Fourth

von Reuss, AR (1921) The Diseases of the Newborn.  New York William Wood & Co, MCMXXI
(Vienna, January 1914)

DeLee JB (1930) The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics.  Philadelphia and London: WB
Saunders Company.

Curtis AH, ed (1933) Obstetrics and Gynecology (3 vols).  Philadelphia & London: WB
Saunders Company.

Fitzgibbon, G (1937) Obstetrics. Browne and Nolan Limited, Dublin, 1937.

Johnstone RW  (1949) A Text-Book of Midwifery, for Students and Practitioners, Fourteenth
Edition. London: Adam and Charles Black.

Greenhill, JP (1955) Obstetrics Eleventh Edition WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia
and London.

Greenhill JP (1965) Obstetrics: From the original text of Joseph B. DeLee, MD. Thirteenth
Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia & London.

Garrey MM, Govan ADT, Hodge C, Callander R (1974) Obstetrics Illusrated, Second Edition,
Churchill Livingstgone: Edinburgh and London.

Bodyazhina V (1983) Textbook of Obstetrics: Translated from the Russian by Alexander
Rosinkin (revised from the 1980 edition). Mir Publishers, Moscow.

Beischer, NA, MacKay EV (1986) Obstetrics and the Newborn: An illustrated textbook,
Second Edition.  WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia 1986.

Influences on obstetric practice since 1950
Eastman HJ (1950) Williams Obstetrics, Tenth Edition

Apgar V (1953) A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Current
Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia 32:260-267.

Apgar et al. (1958) JAMA 168:1985.

Lucey et al. (1964)  Kernicterus in asphyxiated newborn monkeys.  
Experimental Neurology 9

Saigal S, O'Neill A, Surainder Y, Chua LB, Usher R.Placental transfusion and
hyperbilirubinemia in the premature. Pediatrics. 1972 Mar;49(3):406-19.

Yao AC, Lind J: Placental transfusion.
Am J Dis Child 1974;127:128-141. (no online abstract)

Saigal S, Usher RH. Symptomatic neonatal plethora. Biol Neonate. 1977;32(1-2):62-72.

Current obstetric protocols
ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice (2006) ACOG Committee Opinion No. 348, November
2006: Umbilical cord blood gas and acid-base analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Nov;108(5):

Cunningham FG, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap L III, Bloom SL, Wenstrom KD, eds,
Williams Obstetrics - Twenty-second edition, New York: McGraw-Hill Medical
Publishing Division, 2005.

Turrentine JE. Clinical Protocols in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Edition.  The Parthenon
Publishing Group, New York, 2003.

Recent reconsideration of the protocol for umbilical cord clamping
van Rheenen P, de Moor L, Eschbach S, de Grooth H, Brabin B.  Delayed cord
clamping and haemoglobin levels in infancy: a randomised controlled trial in term
babies. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 May;12(5):603-16.

Oh W. Timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth in full-term infants. JAMA. 2007 Mar 21;

Hutton EK, Hassan ES. Late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord in full-term
neonates: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. JAMA. 2007 Mar 21;

Baenziger O, Stolkin F, Keel M, von Siebenthal K, Fauchere JC, Das Kundu S, Dietz V,
Bucher HU, Wolf M.The influence of the timing of cord clamping on postnatal cerebral
oxygenation in preterm neonates: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2007 Mar;

Ultee K, Swart J, van der Deure H, Lasham C, van Baar A. Delayed cord clamping in
preterm infants delivered at 34 to 36 weeks gestation: A randomized controlled trial.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Feb 16; [Epub ahead of print]

van Rheenen PF, Brabin BJ .A practical approach to timing cord clamping in resource
poor settings.  BMJ. 2006 Nov 4;333(7575):954-8.  See also: Hutchon DJ. Delayed cord
clamping may also be beneficial in rich settings. BMJ. 2006 Nov 18;333(7577):1073.

van Rheenen PF, Gruschke S, Brabin BJ. Delayed umbilical cord clamping for
reducing anaemia in low birthweight infants: implications for developing countries.
Ann Trop Paediatr. 2006 Sep;26(3):157-67.

Hutchon D, Ononeze B. Preterm birth: effect of corticosteroids or immediate cord
clamping? PLoS Med. 2006 Oct;3(10):e462.  Letter in response to: Kapellou O et al.  
Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric
scaling of brain growth. PLoS Med. 2006 Aug;3(8):e265.

Levy T, Blickstein I.Timing of cord clamping revisited. J Perinat Med. 2006;34(4):293-7.

Mercer JS, Vohr BR, McGrath MM, Padbury JF, Wallach M, Oh W. Delayed cord
clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular
hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;

Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Pellegrini L, Otano L, Ferreira M, Ricci C, Casas O,
Giordano D, Lardizabal J. The effect of timing of cord clamping on neonatal venous
hematocrit values and clinical outcome at term: a randomized, controlled trial.
Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):e779-86.

Hutchon DJ.Epidemiology of preterm birth: delayed cord clamping used to be taught
and practised. BMJ. 2004 Nov 27;329(7477):1287; author reply 1287(adherence to
immediate clamping and pharmacological treatment).

Emhamed MO, van Rheenen P, Brabin BJ. The early effects of delayed cord clamping
in term infants born to Libyan mothers. Trop Doct. 2004 Oct;34(4):218-22.

Philip AGS, Saigal S (2004) When should we clamp the umbilical cord? NeoReviews Vol.
5 No.4 2004 e142,  See also
e-letter responses at;

Greater vulnerability of males
Simon N, Volicer L (1976) Neonatal asphyxia in the rat: greater vulnerability of males and
persistent effects on brain monoamine synthesis. Journal of Neurochemistry 26:893-900.