"When mothers receive an excessive amount of depressant drugs in the
antepartum period, it is a common occurrence that the infants breathe once, then
become apneic for many minutes. . ."
“A satisfactory cry is sometimes not established even when the infant leaves the
Apgar V (1953) A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Current
Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia 32:260-267.