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TRADITION (quotes from textbooks 1801-1986):
After Queen Victoria gave birth to Prince Leopold in 1853, anesthesia in childbirth
became more and more widely promoted and accepted.  During the following
century, as childbirth became increasingly medicalized, clamping of the umbilical
cord within the first minute of birth was employed to preserve the "sterile field"
for suturing.  Virginia Apgar, in 1953, attributed respiratory depression at birth to
use of anesthesia, apparently without consideration of whether or not the
umbilical cord was clamped before the first breath.
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Anesthesia was first used in 1846, and a year later in childbirth.
Before Anesthesia:
1980
1850
1950
1900
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1920
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William Harvey, 1653
Charles White, 1773
Erasmus Darwin, 1801
Textbooks, 1801-1986
Obstetric protocols
Recent reconsideration
Obstetrics 1950
Virginia Apgar, 1953
Apgar et al., 1958
Apgar et al., 1958 more
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1980
1850
1950
1900
1920
1800
1800
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