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Charles White (1773):

"Can it possibly be supposed that this important
event, this great change which takes place in the
lungs, the heart, and the liver, from the state of a
foetus, kept alive by the umbilical cord, to that state
when life cannot be carried on without respiration,
whereby the lungs must be fully expanded with air,
and the whole mass of blood instead of one fourth
part be circulated through them, the ductus
venosus, foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus, and the
umbilical arteries and vein must all be closed, and
the mode of circulation in the principal vessels
entirely altered - Is it possible that this wonderful
alteration in the human machine should be properly
brought about in one instant of time, and at the will
of a by-stander?"

White C (1773) A Treatise on the Management of Pregnant and
Lying-In Women. Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1987,
p 45
Available from:
Charles White (1728-1813)
William Harvey, 1653
Charles White, 1773
Erasmus Darwin, 1801
Textbooks, 1801-1986
Obstetric protocols
Recent reconsideration
Obstetrics 1950
Virginia Apgar, 1953
Apgar et al., 1958
Apgar et al., 1958 more
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