Apgar et al., 1958 also wrote:
"All infants with a score of 8, 9, or 10 are vigorous and have
breathed within seconds of delivery."
This means that transition from fetal to neonatal respiration was
expected to take place within seconds of delivery.
Is it pathological for an infant not to breathe right away at birth?
Shouldn't a variable range be expected?
What outcomes await infants slow to begin breathing?
Evidence-based care needs to make provision for statistical outliers.
Apgar et al. (1958) JAMA 168:1985.